Thursday, August 20, 2009

Abortion Essay

Abortion should continue to be a legalised surgical procedure. After much discussion abortion has finally become legalised in most countries, but was it the right choice to make? Abortion is the greatest cause of death in NSW and many women regret ever having an abortion. Many women suffer from pain and discomfort from the result of an abortion, when they could easily save their babies life and continue on with theirs, by putting it up for adoption. There are many women out there who continue to have abortions. It is the safest surgical procedure and if abortion became illegal it would result in even more deaths. Unwanted babies can ruin not only teenagers but many other women’s careers, sometimes resulting in an unsuccessful life. Abortion has and continues to be a major issue in society that clearly needs to be resolved.

Each year there are sixty to seventy million abortions which occur worldwide, eighty thousand of those occur in Australia and forty thousand occur in New South Wales alone. Forty-one percent of deaths that occur in Australia are caused from having abortions, this makes it the greatest cause of death in Australia. The first place that a baby lives is in the womb. Although it may seem very safe and secure for the baby, it is actually the most dangerous place for an Australian to live. Eight-hundred abortions are performed each week in New South Wales and ninety-eight percent of those are done for convenience. Sometimes teenagers may not want their parents to find out that they ever got pregnant or maybe the family is just not ready for the baby.

There are other alternatives to having an abortion which are not only safer but are better for everyone. The main choice being, putting your child up for adoption. This allows you to live your life without worrying about the innocent baby that you’ve killed. It also gives the baby a chance to have a good life as well, with a pair of loving parents who have waited so long for their dream to come true, having their own child. For each abortion that is performed, there are at least ten families that have waited so long to have their very own child. Unfortunately for all those couples, many adoption lists in Australia have either been limited or completely closed for years. There just aren’t enough children available in the world for childless couples.

Abortion is not simply a quick easy procedure that is over and done with no problems. There are a number of effects that you can receive from having an abortion. Ten percent of women undergoing induced abortion suffer from immediate complications, two percent which are major. Minor complications include minor infections, bleeding, fevers, chronic abdominal pain, gastro-intestinal disturbances, vomiting, and Rh sensitisation. The most common major effects include infection, excessive bleeding, embolism, ripping or perforation of the uterus, anaesthesia complications, convulsions, haemorrhage, cervical injury, and endotoxic shock. Abortion of a first pregnancy interrupts the growth and hormonal changes which enable the breast to produce milk, this leaves the breast at a high risk of cancer. The millions of induced abortions occurring around the world has accounted for the mysterious jump in the breast cancer rate.

As well as the Physical effects of abortion, there are also the emotional effects. Many women suffer from Post Abortion Syndrome which at its worst can lead to suicide. It is understood to be a type of post- traumatic stress disorder and often involves postnatal depression, suicidal behaviour, drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, family breakdown and child neglect or abuse. The biggest effect from abortion for most women would have to be regret.

According to a survey of women effected by abortions, ninety- five percent of women today don’t believe they made the right decision. This will impact on them greatly as they will continue living their lives thinking about what it would be like if they had kept that baby. They also feel guilt as they have killed an innocents life.

Abortion was once a very dangerous procedure but now it is extremely safe. In 1973 the death risk from abortion was 3.4 deaths per 100,000 women. Before 1973 there were even more deaths as it was an illegal procedure, many unqualified people who didn’t know what they are doing, undertook the procedure and often used hangers and other sharp objects. By 1985 the death risk had dropped to .4 deaths per 100,000 women, and today it is very rare for a woman to die from the result of an abortion. It is now said to be among the safest surgical procedures available. Because abortions have been made legal in most countries, there has been notice of a fifteen percent more decrease in the crime rate in those countries that conduct abortions frequently. This is due to the fact that there aren’t any unqualified people undertaking the procedure anymore, it is now very professional.

Many women and teenagers are unable to cope with having a baby who is mentally or physically disabled or who is the result of rape. This is quite understandable especially for teenagers and elderly women. It is hard enough for teenagers to look after a baby, let alone a baby that requires full attention and has special needs. One case that has occurred was that a teenage girl who had down syndrome got pregnant with a baby who also had the syndrome. The teenage girl was unable to care for the baby and her parents were far to old to cope with another child. The only choice they had was to have an abortion.

Women or teenagers who are raped are very traumatised as it is, but to become pregnant from the incident is even worse. To think that you are carrying a child as a result of being raped is an absolutely horrifying feeling. Usually you want to try and forget about what happened but having the baby would just bring back far too many terrible memories. Without being able to have an abortion as a result of rape, would mean that many women might have to bring up a baby who was conceived by a very destructive act.

When women fall pregnant, it is not always planned. Some women will have the baby because they were planning to have one eventually anyway and they don’t have any other major worries at the time. For other women and teenagers, it could be the worst thing they could do at the time. A child is not easy to look after and they require a big responsibility. Some teenagers are not ready to take on that responsibility when they find out they’re pregnant, so they have an abortion, which is perfectly safe for them to do. This enables them to live their life a bit longer and think about their career before they start thinking about any commitments. For older women who fall pregnant it is often very dangerous to go through childbirth and there is more of a chance that the baby will have defects or deformities. Abortion is really the best solution in this situation. It saves having to worry about looking after a baby that needs full attention, while at the same time you are trying to look after yourself as you get older.

Abortion is a very strong issue in our society today and has been dealt with in most areas of the world. Some people believe that abortion should definitely be an illegal procedure as you are taking the life of an innocent. Others think that it needs to stay legal, otherwise there may be more deaths than expected. I believe that having an abortion is a very destructive act as you are killing a baby who hasn’t even seen the outside world. The only women who should be legally able to have an abortion are those who’s lives are in danger, have been raped, or who’s baby’s life is in danger. Too many babies out there are being killed just because it is convenient for their mother to have an abortion.

There are also too many people who are dying to have a child of their own but there just aren’t enough on the adoption lists. If your going to go and get yourself pregnant in the first place then I think you should accept the consequences and look after the child, or at least give it to someone else to look after. I’m sure a baby would prefer to come into the world, grow up with a family who loves them and find out they were adopted, than be killed at the age of eight weeks.

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Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Machiavelli Essay

Niccolo Machiavelli was a political philosopher of the Renaissance. He lived from 1496-1527. Niccolo Machiavelli was also a very famous painter in his time. He painted many famous paintings that are seen in museums, books, and many other places. He was also involved in government throughout his life. Niccolo Machiavelli was a painter, political philosopher, Italian historian, an statesman for influenced many political leaders in Europe.

Niccolo Machiavelli led a very political life. In 1494, Niccolo Machiavelli became an important diplomat. He spent most of his time over the years writing history, political philosophy, and plays. The Renaissance was a time of political conflict. Niccolo took part in diplomatic missions through France, Germany, and Italy. In later years, he was forced to retirement of the political business. Machiavelli was known as the “father of modern political theory”.

Niccolo Machiavelli had many political writings. Many of Machiavelli’s writings reflected political issues. He wrote about the world around him and his life in the Renaissance. He witnessed many changes in the environment and wrote about them.

Niccolo Machiavelli wrote one political treatise titled The Prince. The Prince was written during a time of tragedy in the Renaissance. Many things Machiavelli wrote about had to deal with politics and violence. The Prince was written in 1513. Although it was written then, it was published however until 1532 and Machiavelli’s death. The theme of this book is about preservation of authority and the establishment of it.

Because of The Prince, Machiavelli is considered one of the greatest early modern analyzers of the political power.

In 1498, Machiavelli served as a civil servant in Florence. Later in 1512, Machiavelli was imprisoned and the republic failed.

Machiavelli had many jobs over his lifetime. He was the head of the second chancery in 1498. Niccolo was also the secretary of council and he studied political tactics. He also studied the strength of a nation with only one prince. In 1509, Machiavelli led a small army to free Pisa. Later in his life, for 5 years he worked as a historiographer.

Niccolo Machiavelli had hard times in his life. He lost his place in politics and very much wanted it back. When he wrote The Prince, he wrote it to try and regain favoritism by Medici. In the end, Medici didn’t agree with what Machiavelli said in The Prince and ended up rejecting Machiavelli’s proposal to have that job back.

Machiavelli also wrote a book titled “Discourses On Livy”. The book was on Machiavelli’s full political philosophy. Niccolo also wrote a biography on the Life of Castruccio Castracani. He wrote many plays and also many poems. His most famous poem was The Mandrake. The Mandrake was written in 1524. Machiavelli also wrote the History of Florence in 1525. The History of Florence tells about chronicles of the city. Machiavelli also wrote the Art of the War in 1521. That book describes mercenary troops and their lives.

Niccolo Machiavelli was a very productive leader. Over all of his tragedies that happened in his life, he still overcame all of it. He worked very hard producing plays that have become very famous over the years. He wrote The Prince, which is a very well populated piece today. Not only did Machiavelli produce plays but he also wrote poems and biographies for people. Many of his quotes that he resighted in The Prince are still remembered today and used greatly. He was also a very significant political leader and went very far in government.

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Monday, August 17, 2009

Death Penalty Research Paper

Lethal injection has become the preferred method of execution in the United States since the early 80's. But is lethal injection a harsh enough penalty for murder? The answer is no, it is not a good enough punishment for someone who has taken the life of another. Lethal injection is a process that allows a convict to be put down quickly and painlessly, but what happened to the older methods? Methods such as hanging, electrocution, and firing squads are not used in a large scale these days. These methods are the kind that makes the offender miserable for the last moments of their life; these are the methods I think that should be used today. I am going to argue that the life in prison is not enough, the death penalty should be worse than what it is, and public executions have a greater deterrent effect.

There are a lot of families that want more justice to the person who killed a family member then life imprisonment and that is just what they should get. For a family who has one of their own taken from them, the grief they feel is unimaginable. They need justice to be served to aid them to deal with their loss; they need the victim's death to be avenged. Life imprisonment is not enough. It is not a help to a grieving family to let the offender spend the rest of his days in jail, eating three square meals a day and watching TV. Quite frankly, it is not proper justice on behalf of the victim either. Ancient civilizations would not have thought twice about sentencing a person to death for taking the life of another. Opponents of the death penalty would argue that the death penalty is barbaric and inhuman, but what about the murder of innocent people? Is life in prison the punishment we want people to believe they will receive for murder? Prisons these days are state of the art, with weight rooms, work programs, televisions, food, and warm beds.

Prison is a step up from the conditions that some people live in. Life in prison is more of a gift to some people then a punishment. Some people say that life in prison is worse then death because the offender will have to think about what they did every day for the rest of their life. Just knowing what they did is not good enough. Executions do not happen the minute after they commit a crime, there is enough time for them to think about what they have done while they wait for their life to be ended.

Executing life prisoners will save money in long run. If a criminal committed a murder at 18 and lived to the average life expectancy of an American, taxpayers would have to pay for that convict for at least 50 years. If that same criminal was executed at 19 hundreds of thousands of dollars would be saved on that convict alone. In a system that is overworked and overcrowded it could be just the thing to aid the criminal justice system that it so desperately needs. Needed jail space would be freed up for criminals with lesser offenses who might receive probation and commit other offenses. The money it would save would enable a lower amount of money to be allotted to prisons that have to house these inmates who could have received death. That money could in turn be used in programs to help deter people at and early age from committing all types of crimes.

Some murderers will never feel remorse for what they have done, what will life in prison do for those people? There is an old saying "an eye for an eye" and only with that theory can justice be served. Since ancient times criminals have received the death penalty because the crimes they have committed have damaged people and families forever. Murderers are not good enough to receive life in prison. They have committed the ultimate crime, taking the life of another. Allowing convicted murderers to receive the mercy of the courts and get life is the wrong message we want to tell the public. To let murders off easy is an insult to the victims, the families, and society as a whole.

Lethal injection is too lenient of a death penalty for a harsh crime; criminals sentenced to death should receive harsh penalties like the crimes they committed. We should punish a murderer more severely then we do today. It is hard for a family to just go watch a prisoner get an injection, after all, the victim most likely received a more violent death then an injection. Justice for murderers should be more violent. Why should they just give them a little injection when they did worse to their victim? The punishment system should be just the same as what the murderer did. For example, if a murderer shot somebody in the arm, and the next day they died, then he or she should be shot in front of their family. Let them suffer. If he does not die, then shoot him again.

The 8th amendment prevents cruel and unusual punishments. The amendment was established in part because Supreme Court justices felt that personal vengeance has no place in the criminal justice system. The fate of a murderer was left to a jury of people that did not know the victim, most likely have never had anyone they love taken from them in cold blood, and do not know what it feels like knowing someone they loved suffered the way the victim did. I think the amendment should be abolished. Maybe it is time families got a little vengeance. There is no end in sight for murders so why not allow the families of victims to avenge the deaths of their loved ones, and allow them to get the proper justice they seek. The loss of a loved one to a horrible death is unimaginable, and then for the person who took that loved one away from a family to just go to sleep and never wake up again is not enough. "Robert E. Crowe, the Illinois state–Ęs attorney" was a great supporter of the death penalty. "I urge capital punishment for murder," he once exclaimed, "not because I believe that society wishes to take the life of a murderer, but because society does not wish to lose its own" (Kronenwetter)".

In England, many years ago, they used a different kind of death penalty. Instead of using a regular death penalty, they would torture their prisoner until they were dead. In the late middle Ages, European countries executed people for minor offenses; England primarily reserved the death penalty for such relatively serious crimes as murder, treason, rape, arson, and robbery. However, pick-pockets and other petty thieves were most often executed. Hanging and beheading were the most common executions. This is what the United States should start doing. If we would begin to hang and behead murderers, then their definitely would not be any more crimes committed. In England, the array of crimes punishable by death has increased over the years, until the early nineteenth century more than two hundred different crimes had become capital offenses.

The death penalty in the American colonies was a little similar to ours in this day. Treason and murder is what made them give the death penalty. Certain country's have different regulations for the death penalty. Murder was the capital crime in the colonies, as was treason or rebellion. In the Massachusetts colony, cursing one's parents was a capital crime. This information is a great help for our capital punishment system. We need to start following the laws from back then. The little crimes we can do away with, but to hang or behead someone would be a lot more deterrent.
In the wake of the American Revolution, the U. S. Constitution gave both the states and the federal government the right to set their own criminal penalties. "The very first congress of the United States passed federal laws making death the penalty for rape and murder, and each of the original states made other crimes punishable by death as well (Kronenwetter)". These executions go a little to far for the crimes they committed back then, but if we use some of those punishments these day's, then there definitely will not be any crimes.

While the United States is seen as barbaric to other countries because most do not have the death penalty, they do not have the murder rates we do. Other countries do not have violent murderers like we do either. If we can not prevent murders, we can at least use harsher penalties to punish offenders. Penalties like hanging, electrocution, firing squad, and the gas chamber need to be reintroduced. The current punishments would make us believe that people who take another person's life should receive the same treatment as a sick family pet, a simple injection that brings about a quick, painless death. Is that really justice for a murder victim? If murder victims could have their say they would want murderers to suffer the same pain that they did, but unfortunately they cannot have their say because their lives were savagely cut short. The only way for victims to receive the justice they deserve is for their assailant should suffer like they did.

Executions alone are not enough of a deterrent. Executions that are opened to the public could be just the deterrent we need. The number of murderers committed increases everyday. Why can't we stop them? This has been a question for as long as time. Putting the injection to them will not stop anything. Think about it, if everyone in the world could watch a murderer get executed, who would want to kill anyone anymore. They would not want to go through what they have seen, so maybe it will change their mind and make them think before they do so. In the old days when there were public executions there were no where near as many murders as there are today. All executions were public in the old days including hangings here in the United States. Public executions were done away with because they were seen as barbaric, but how will people in the world today realize the punishments for killing if they do not know what an execution is like? Just telling people killing is wrong is not enough. They need a mental image to be able to put with the thought of murder. Public executions are just the thing that would make people learn murder is wrong and it carries with it a harsh penalty.

Penalties such as hanging, electrocution, and the firing squad should be used more often. We do not have to go as far as some Arabic countries where people get mutilated until they die, but we do need to make harsher penalties viewable to the masses. The government should show the executions on television, and open the executions up to a public audience. People would not even have to view the execution to get the effects of it. The media would talk about it enough that the message would be conveyed to everyone. The harsh penalties would be the deterrent they were always meant to be.

The death penalty has been in murky water since the early 80's. Even with the most painless method available used the country as a whole is still seen as barbaric throughout the world. The greatest civilizations in history all used the death penalty and a much harsher penalties then used today. From the Egyptians to the Romans, and the Middle Ages until today the death penalty has always been used. While it has always been used, no civilization has ever used a painless method as such as we use today. That is why there were not murderers like there are today. Every one knew the punishment for murder was a painful and severe death. Now murderers can receive life imprisonment instead of the death penalty allowing them to spend the rest days behind bars watching TV. Harsher death penalties would help relieve the grief victims families will feel after the loss of their loved ones. Death is the only right way to avenge the death of any victim that they can not get any other way. Death penalties have never been a great deterrent but they have been even less of a deterrent since they have been made less painful and private. Only a modified harsher death penalty can help severe crimes to been seen as morally wrong to the public as a whole. Robert Crowe said, "It is the finality of the death penalty which instills fear in the heart of every murderer, and it is this fear of punishment which protects society (Kronenwetter)".

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Sunday, August 16, 2009

Periodic Table Essay

The periodic table is a table in which all of the known elements are listed. The table arranges the elements in order of increasing proton number to show the similarities of chemical elements. Therefore elements with structural similarities & atomic number are placed together. These elements can be placed into two different categories, metals & non-metals. These elements can then be sub divided into 4 groups; Alkali, non-metals, transition & inner-transitions. If read horizontally the size of the atoms increases from metals to non-metals, yet when read vertically, all of the elements in the same group have the same number of electrons, which means they all behave in the same manner.

The first man to describe the periodic table was Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, whom was interested in chemistry. Mendeleev was determine to prove that elements in fact followed certain patterns. Mendeleev used the properties of the 57 known elements to group them. He used the first version of the periodic table to place elements where they seemed to belong. He also left blank spaces in the appropriate squares. After the elements had been laid out he was able to, in detail, predict the chemical & physical tendencies of the elements. Hydrogen didn’t fit into his pattern so he put it in a box of it’s own. A new row was started each time an element was discovered with properties similar to those in the first row. When read top to bottom there are various similarities to be found in the table, identicalas to when read left to right. This is the basis for the modern periodical table.


The elements in the periodic table are arranged in a manner that places them in order of increasing proton number in “Groups” which are the columns, & “Periods” which are the rows. There are 8 groups of electrons; each named by the number of electrons inside the outer shell of the atoms of the elements of that group. Groups 2 & 3 are the transition metals group. The elements in this group have properties, which depend on the number of electrons within the inner shell. The atomic number of the elements increases by one as you horizontally read the table. When you read vertically down the table each period corresponds to the new outer shell of electrons surrounding the nucleus. As multiple shells are added the atoms of elements down a group get larger.

From 57 elements in Dmitri’s time of discovery to the 104 known elements today, the periodic table has helped to establish the properties & values of both new & old elements. The table is used every day by hundreds of people around the world. The data in the table provides information to anyone who seeks it.

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Friday, August 14, 2009

Segmentation Strategies Essay

Abstract
This essay mainly focuses on the AHBAI website, promoting their Proud Lady hair care and beauty products and merchandise. Their main focus is on the large Black Community within the US, but they are also starting to go abroad as well. They provide job opportunities, scholarships and training within the desired industry and are a thriving association in representation of Black-owned manufacturing companies. Their segmentation variables reflect on how they selected their target market and also how they had decided to communicate to their product and service to their target audience.

Introduction
Marketing is much more involved than just the business of selling and advertising of products and services. Of course it is the main aspect of marketing, but it does branch out to many different areas of processing before a product or service are ready to be presented to the consumers. There has to be a need or want for a product or service before it is established and then it is to be designed in order to satisfy the audience. However, the total market consists of a large population therefore there must be further research to be carried out, as a means to select the potential market and this is where segmentation occurs. Once all the characteristics have been identified through segmentation, a target market is achieved where those consumers with similar needs in relation to the product or service, are grouped. The next step in this process is the communication medium of which the marketer would choose that would be effective in getting the message of the product or service, across to the target audience.

A growing communication medium includes the Internet where it is easily accessible to the market. This report identifies a company’s website and how effective it is reaching its target market. Beginning from the determination of their segmentation objectives to their target market, and identifying their communication objectives. The company that will be in focus for this particular report is the American Health and Beauty Aids Institute (AHBAI), the trade company in association with The Proud Lady beauty products. AHBAI is an internationally renowned trade association representing the world’s leading Black-owned companies that manufacture ethnic hair care and beauty related products featuring the Proud Lady Symbol.

Segmentation
All products and services rely on the use of market segmentation for appropriate advertising purposes and it can be seen as a vital management tool. Schiffman defines market segmentation as the process of dividing a market into distinct subsets of consumers with common needs and characteristics and selecting one or more segments to target with a distinct marketing mix (2001, pg. 54). Hawkins view of segmentation involves in the development of specific marketing programs targeted at consumer groups with unique needs and/or purchasing processes (1994, pg. 9). Since companies vary between what they can offer to their markets, segmentation has been proven to be efficient and effective in regards to selecting and serving their segment of the market, in which they can provide the best service within that segment.

Market segmentation also allows marketers of consumer goods and services identify the needs of the market and can usually provide the marketer with the opportunity to expand their target market or enter a new market to satisfy more effectively the specific needs or wants of particular consumers (Schiffman, Bednall, Cowley, O’Cass, Watson, Kanuk 2001, pg. 55). It shows that this is an effective practice rather than aiming at all potential customers and taking other competition head on, companies secure themselves by targeting a section of that market and specialising in features that appeal to their consumers (Poulos, M. 2001, pg. 12).

Segmentation studies can assist the marketer to design existing and new products to satisfy newly discovered needs and wants of specific groups in the target market. This can involve in the redesign and the repositioning of existing products or even the addition of a new market segment. However, the segmentation strategy relies on establishing the appropriate bases, which include geographic factors, demographic factors, psychological characteristics, psychographic characteristics and sociocultural variables.

Geographic Segmentation
Through geographic segmentation, the market is divided by location. This is followed through by the theory that people who live in the same area share some similar needs and wants which differ from those people who live in other areas. There can be many variables that can affect this segmentation by location, which therefore does not allow the same marketing strategies that can apply to one location, to a totally different location like for example, climatic and regional differences.

In relation to this variable, the AHBAI website mainly focuses on the American population but not only focuses on production in America as they’re ‘Proud Lady Symbol can be found over 3,500 different products in the United States and abroad ’.

Demographic Segmentation
Demographic segmentation identifies those characteristics that are identifiable and measurable statistic of the population. These characteristics include age, gender, marital status, income, occupation and education, which can provide the basis for this particular segmentation. Demographic segmentation can be seen as the major factor when marketers need to locate a target market, as it is often the most accessible and cost-effective way (Schiffman et al 2001, pg. 59).

The AHBAI website doesn’t really focus on a demographic segment in particular, but they do focus on the more ethnic population of America. They eagerly promote that the AHBAI members are there to ‘serve Black America by providing jobs and scholarships and by teaching consumers how to recycle their dollars in the Black community’ . The website purely expresses that they are there to serve the Black American community and the demographics that they have focused on is mainly those who want to get into health and beauty care. As already mentioned before, AHBAI offers to their community, scholarships, internships or training, which therefore covers a lot of aspects in the demographic segment. Students who want to have a career in health and beauty and are fresh out of high school, seem to be a target segment for AHBAI however they do not outline the ages that they are observing, but they do take other variables into consideration like academic achievement, school activities and extracurricular activities.

Psychological Segmentation
This variable refers to the more intrinsic qualities of a consumer. Consumer segmentation is usually based on specific psychological variables, for example, their needs and motivations, personality, perceptions, learning, level of involvement and attitudes.

Psychological segmentation pretty much outlines the desires of an individual. Therefore, if someone had the desire to become a hairdresser or beautician, then this segment is all about those individuals. AHBAI focuses on their Proud Lady Beauty Show where they have a World Fantasy Competition. The highlight of this show focuses on the creativity and imagination of the leading Black hair designers have to offer the world.

Psychographic Segmentation
Closely aligned with psychological research is a valuable marketing tool that can help identify future market segments that are likely to be responsive to specific marketing messages. This is the attempt to profile many consumer aspects that includes individual lifestyle, personality, buying motives, interests, attitudes, beliefs and values. Therefore being summed into a consumer’s activities, interests and opinions (AIO). This information may also be acquired through questionnaires.

Pretty much along the lines of the psychological segmentation, the psychographic segmentation appeals to the individual and their main needs and wants in this particular trade.

Sociocultural Segmentation
This segmentation provides a further basis for target marketing. The population has successfully been divided into segments according to stage in the family life cycle, social class, core cultural values, sub cultural memberships and cross-cultural affiliation.
This segmentation variable has been the main focus of the website where the emphasis of the Black American population is expressed. Hand in hand with the demographic segment, which focuses on the race variable, the website tries to keep within these boundaries.

Target Market
After the identification of the bases for consumer segmentation, marketers are required to select one or more of the segments to target with the appropriate targeting mix. These are further explained in the following.

Identifiable
Marketers must be able to identify and measure the relevant characteristics to divide a market into separate segments on the basis of a common need that is relevant to the product or service. Therefore they have to gather the appropriate information, where some segments are easily identifiable or observable, for example geography (location) or the consumer’s demographic (age, gender, occupation, race). Whereas some you may need to acquire through the use of a questionnaire or survey, these characteristics may include education, income and marital status.

AHBAI satisfies this requirement in their marketing strategy where ‘the Proud Lady is a symbol of pride, hope and dignity and a promoter of economic growth in the Black Community’ . It also assures consumers that the product was manufactured by a stronger Black America.

Sufficient
Marketers have to keep in mind that a worthwhile target market has to have a relatively sufficient number of people to be able to tailor the specific needs or interests of the consumer towards a product or service. To estimate the size of the target market, the marketer can use the secondary demographic data which would definitely be provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), or undertake a probability survey themselves, which can then be a guide in reflection of the total market. In regards to AHBAI’s target market, the Black American community is quite substantial in the US.

Stability
There has to be some sort of relative stability amongst the consumers in terms of needs, and demographic and psychological factors, which are more than likely to grow and expand over time. Marketers tend to avoid those segments that are highly unpredictable, which are sometimes observed through the teenagers as they are a sizeable and easily identifiable market segment because they are eager to buy, eager to spend and easy to reach, however their attention span are quite limited.

Stability is satisfied through their target market for those who are interested in a profession in regards to this particular trade in hairdressing and beauty care.

Accessibility
Accessibility to the target market is one of the most important criteria for effective targeting is because marketers have to find the most effective way to target the desired market segment in an efficient and economical way. There are many different communication means which can include television programs or special interest magazines that marketers can use to reach their target market with minimum waste circulation and competition, but they are also always in search or other communication mediums. This would definitely include the Internet. This has been a growing phenomenon, where messages are constantly in the hands of the consumer, whenever and wherever they want.

As the main focus is of the website, it’s accessibility is quite straightforward and simple to navigate. There is no clutter of excess information, just necessary details the company. The hair care and beauty products are in no doubt easily accessible.

Communication Objectives
Once market segmentation and target marketing has been achieved, the marketer has to establish their communication strategy, involving in the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver through some kind of channel or medium. Even this is involved in a process, beginning from identifying the communication objectives, then selecting the appropriate audience for the message and the appropriate media through which to reach them, and then design the message so that it is appropriate to the medium and the audience (Schiffman et al 2001, pg. 264).

Communication Strategy
In developing the communication strategy, the marketer has to identify the primary communication objectives, which may include creating awareness of a service, promoting sales of a product, attracting retail patronage, creating goodwill or a favourable image and any other objectives that the company might want to promote. The essential component of a communication strategy is selecting the appropriate target audience and what the company seeks to accomplish with its promotional program, which are often stated in terms of the nature of the message to be communicated or what specific communication effects are to be achieved (Belch & Belch 2001, pg. 30). However, marketers should keep in mind that each individual of the target audience are different according to their own traits, characteristics, interests, needs, experience and knowledge, therefore segmenting the audience into different groups that are homogenous in terms of some relevant characteristic (Schiffman et al 2001, pg. 264). The marketer is then able to create specific messages for each target group, keeping in mind the budget available to present these messages to the audience.

The Internet is a very successful way of trying to get messages through to a target audience. AHBAI in this respect managed to inform their audience about how and why they are a substantiated company and what they had to offer to their target audience. If the website was not of sufficient information, then they are able to further contact the home source either by correspondence, phone or email.

Conclusion
Segmentation is a vital management tool that marketers require to identify their target market to effectively and efficiently promote their product or service. Marketers are also able to expand that same target market or enter a new market in response to their consumers needs and wants. AHBAI serves the Black American community and those who want to have a profession in the hair and beauty industry. Their target market is quite substantial as the community is rather large in the US. Their communication medium may not only lie within the Internet, as they may have other promotional methods, like advertisements on television. However, their beauty shows are also a promotional method in which to promote their hair care and beauty products and they also are selling a couple of their Proud Lady merchandise which can be purchased through a form attached to the site.

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Thursday, August 13, 2009

Lyme Disease Research Paper

Lyme disease is a tick-borne systemic infection cause by a spiral organism, Borrelia burgdorferi, characterized by neurologic, joint, and cardiac manifestations. Lyme disease is carried by a tiny tick. It begins with a bite and a rash that can be so slight, you may not even notice. However the consequences can be serious, sometimes even fatal. Lyme disease can create symptoms that mimic a wide variety of other diseases, ranging from juvenile arthritis to multiple sclerosis to Alzheimer’s disease.

The birth of Lyme disease started in Lyme, Connecticut. The disease was found in the 1960’s. Polly Murray moved to Lyme, Connecticut in 1959 with her four children. Within a few years of living in Lyme she began having periodic flu-like illnesses, headaches, and odd rashes. When she first went to the doctor they thought she had rheumatic fever and the doctors gave her penicillin. This helped for a little while but the symptoms returned in the spring and summer. In the early 1970’s Murray asked her doctor if this illness could be a delayed reaction to a tick bite, because she knew she had been bitten by ticks over the years. The doctor said no because she had no symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and in those days that was the only disease people thought was caused by ticks. Soon kids all over her neighborhood were coming down with the same symptoms. Murray kept at it and told everyone about the problems she had and had no answers for them. Later research found that her problems came from a tick called a Ixodes dammini tick.

Symptoms of Lyme disease can be highly variable from one person to another and also can vary dramatically over time in one person. Although there is a classic pattern of illnesses in Lyme disease, it is not expressed in nearly half of all patients. This can make spotting the disease extraordinary difficult and living with it frustrating and painful. The disease progresses in three stages. In the first stage the symptom most commonly experienced by people with Lyme disease is a distinctive rash. This symptom is only experienced with about 60% of patients with Lyme disease. This rash is called EMC, which means a ”red, chronic, migrating rash.” It is most likely to appear a week after the tick bite but may occur from two to thirty days after such a bite. if not treated the rash will disappear on its own, usually within about three weeks. Along with the rash, or often in its absence, the patient often experiences a flu-like illness. About 60 to 80 percent of those who have the rash will experience such flu-like symptoms simultaneously. The symptoms may include: headache, fever, chills, aching muscles, stiff neck, loss of appetite, sore throat, nausea, and vomiting. Months later the second stage will kick in which includes various neurologic, cardiac, and joint manifestations. The third stage which eventually occurs in some untreated patients, is characterized by chronic arthritis and various neurologic problems. Some patients do not experience any of these symptom. In these cases doctors wonder if the patients will ever experience any symptoms of Lyme disease.

One of the greatest problems surrounding medical care for Lyme disease is the problem of diagnosis. Diagnostic tests are not likely to be done unless the physician has what is known as high index of suspicion of the disease, which means that he or she is ever on the lookout for it. Even when Lyme disease is suspected, currently available diagnostic tests often yield false negative results and are believed to identify correctly only about half of all confirmed cases, especially early in the disease. If not diagnosed and treated promptly, the disease may seem to disappear only to resurface months or years later. The diagnostic blood test currently available commercially for Lyme disease does not actually look for Borrelia burgdorferi but the spirochete that causes the disease.

The two general blood test used: an immunofluorescence test and an ELISA. Two other tests are used in research laboratories. One is the cell test and the other actually seeks the spirochete. Many physicians are pinning their hopes on a new test for Lyme disease now under development. It looks neither for the spirochete itself nor for the antibodies. Rather, it seeks out spirochete antigens in blood or urine and would therefore allow the disease to be diagnosed even before antibodies formed.

Depending on the individual patient, and one of several drugs antibiotics may be used, usually starting with oral drugs, pills, given for at least ten to fourteen days. When the patient has Lyme disease there are many medications available. In adults: Tetracycline, 500 milligrams by mouth four times a day or Phenoxymethyl penicillin, 500 milligrams by mouth four times a day. In children age eight and older: Tetracycline, 12.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, by mouth every six hours (up to two grams per day) or Phenoxymethyl penicillin, 12.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, by mouth every six hours (up to two grams per day). In children under eight years of age: Erythromycin, 12.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, by mouth every six hours (up to two grams per day).

If you have Lyme disease once in your life you should never forget it. Whenever you have new symptoms in the future, even symptoms that seem totally unrelated, and you see a physician, be sure to give the doctor a complete medical history, including your bout with Lyme disease. Our experience with Lyme disease is too short of duration to know for sure what lies ahead. Once cured you may never have new symptoms, but then again, you may. Only the collective experience of patients and physicians working together with full knowledge will eventually yield all the answers.

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Gender Politics Essay

In our modern society, where technology and popular culture are major influences, the media sets our social norms on how we view and react to both gender roles. It does not matter where a person looks, they can see some form media – such as an advertisement, television show, or just the music we listen too. The inability to escape from the media makes it easy for a person to become saturated with homogenous messages of gender stereotypes, which eventually become the common beliefs throughout the entire society. When it comes to gender roles, the media sends out a message that a male or female should look and act a specific way if you are anything less of that then you do not fit in the social category of normal. These messages create many gender stereotypes, such as an individual’s opinion on their personal appearance, their role in society, or even specific characteristics that they think they should have to be their gender. If the media was not just controlled by a few large corporations, but by many smaller companies it would give society the freedom of choice to choose media with a message they believe instead of just saturating them with dominant, homogenous messages.

The media plays a major role in establishing a certain physical appearance which is ideal for a gender type, and in both cases it is a perfectly fit, well groomed appearance that is made to be what everyone should have and if not, working to get. By doing this they set standards of perfection that few can obtain, and it is because of this they are able to ensure a profitable market forever, the main goal for all types of media. By looking at one source of media such as magazine advertisements it is very easy to see similarities between different ads, such as the type of people that are in the ads, or even the way the photographer emphasizes certain body parts depending on the sex of the person in the advertisement. Males that appear in advertisements are generally tall, dark, and handsome, with a muscular body, which creates an image that every male should look like this or they are not masculine. This can give other males who may not have these physical characteristics a sense that they are less a of a man, because they don’t have huge muscles for example, they are left to think that they are not as masculine as the males they see all the time in advertisements. The same can be seen with an even greater emphasis on body perfection for females in all forms of media. When looking at an advertisement that features a female it can seen that the photographer made sure that the entire body is shown, where as in an advertisement for males there would more emphasis on the face. On average the male face is emphasized 43% more in advertisements than female faces (Cartarphen and Zavoina, 1999, p.114). The female body is generally portrayed as being thin, having good body curvature, good complexion, and having a thick luscious head of hair. This message can be seen throughout the entire spectrum of media, from blockbuster movies to children’s television programs. For example 70% of girls and 40% of boys (www.childrennow.org) said that they want to look like the characters that they see on television, which shows that the media is affecting both genders and that females are subjected to even greater pressure to fall into these social norms. A lot of the time the message being sent out is so subtle that it goes unnoticed at the time, but when you look at the big picture it adds to the perfection message and gives femininity a set of guild lines made by the media. For all the females they do not fall between the guild lines boundaries are considered to less feminine then another female who possesses the qualities that are said to be ideal.

Another aspect of appearance that the media has a major gender influence on is our clothing. They set a certain dress code for society. Media shows that for a male to be considered masculine they must wear things like jeans and a t-shirt, and for a female to me considered feminine they must wear things like dresses and hairs bows. In all forms of media these stereotypical gender role wardrobes are evident, where the little girl on television will be wearing a dress with her hair all done up in bows, and the little boys will be in their ripped blues jeans and a t-shirt. If a male or female decides to break away from the so call norm the media would show them getting singled out, or even getting made fun of for not dressing the way their gender says they should dress. For example if a boy was to wear pink or a girl were to wear jeans and a t-shirt to school, they are considered to be different and are not socially accepted by there peers. This message is shown by the media in one form or another all the time, and it takes away a person’s freedom to express themselves in anyway they want because they will not be accepted by society. Since the media is such a major part of our daily lives, change in our beliefs on clothing we should wear or what physical appearance one should have won’t happen until the media changes its message of perfection they deliver to society.

In our Society both gender types have a role that they are suppose to follow, and the media has a great effect in creating which role each gender should occupy. When you take a look at different forms of media it is evident that the media is portraying males as being in positions of power, and females in secondary positions where they are not given much. Power is usually associated with the amount of control, influence, and authority a person has over others, and very important in our society. Power is not equally shared between gender roles, and this is evident when looking at different media sources. In the majority of television families the father (the masculine figure) is seen to be the breadwinner and the mother takes care of the chores around the household, even if she has a job. This gives the male of the family control of the household because he is the one that is making the money that supports the families day to day living. When females are shown to have an occupation it is usually in a position that is similar to what they are thought to be doing at home such as a waitress, a maid, or a nurse, which are all positions were someone else, a male, controls them. Even if they are shown with a job in media, they are still responsible for the same things a housewife would do, which creates this new image of the “superwoman”. By saturating our society with gender stereotyping the media creates a belief that this is how society should be, and it should just be accepted to be that way. This creates problems for both genders because it makes it hard for female to obtain positions of power, or if a male were to work at a position such as a nurse they would be considered to be feminine. The same goes for female because if they do occupy a position of power such as a CEO of a company, then she is considered to be more masculine. These stereotypes are seen all the time in different media types – when they do show the extreme cases just mentioned they are delivered in a context that is meant for humor and not to be taken seriously i.e. the movies “Mr. Mom, and “Miss Doubtfire”.

Another example were power is shown to a masculine trait is comics books, where the male always plays the role of the powerful hero that has to save the poor defenseless female from danger. This shows that even media forms that are focused more towards children share this idea of a masculine dominant society. This makes children believe from a young age that males are the ones of power, and females are weak and dependent on males. The media also creates an image that females are sexual objects and are there for male pleasure or just to look pretty. This is apparent in the pornography industry where it is shown that females are just used by males for what they want, giving males an even more of a sense of power which Marilyn French calls “patriarchal power”. The media images that our society is saturated with create this sense of male power over everything that is important, and gives an image of weakness and dependence for females. It is from this division of power between genders in media, that each gender is given stereotypical characteristics.

When observing the stereotypical messages that the media sends out it is evident that when it comes to characterization, masculinity and femininity are opposites of each other. The typical media type male would be person who had the traits of strong, aggressive, ruthlessness, and individualism, etc, and the typical female would have traits such as weak, passive, sensitive, and dependent, etc. They also create images of what it is to be good or bad at your gender, which would give certain characteristics to what it meant to be bad male or a good female. These stereotypes can be seen in all media types, where if they show one gender acting like the other it is not delivered in a serious manner, and is often used to just add humor to the situation. This creates an image in the minds of everyone in society that they must act according to their gender type. Even at a young age children are subjected to different media types that teach them things like boys are aggressive, and that girls should be sensitive and caring. The fact it that they are saturated with these same messages over and over, and because children are so easy influenced they believe whatever they see. It is these media set norms that also create the image that it is not right for a male to cry or show emotions, in which case they are forced to bottle up their feelings. If a male shown in media expresses himself like a so-called female, he would then are considered to be less masculine and not accepted by his peers as being one of them. The same goes for females because if they show any sort of aggression they looked at to be masculine, are portrayed by the media as being less desirable by males, and is therefore socially unacceptable. This is particularly evident in the movies industry where the male role is portrayed as some who is hard, and is unafraid during any situation, where the female is always in danger and screaming for help because they are not in control of their emotions.

If a movie were to get a way from their normal characterization, it would be used as the main focus of interest for the movie because it is a rare situation in media and therefore create public interest. A good example of this is the movie “G.I. Jane” where a female is shown being a war hero, but to do this they had to portray her a being hard and more masculine, which was not accepted by most of the other characters in the movie. By creating this image the media has put a type of barrier for females, because it shows the hardship that one would have to go through in order to do something that is not labeled to be for their gender. This makes it less desirable for the people of society to make it their goal in life to no something (i.e. an occupation) that does not fit the social norms set by the media. By saturating the public with these stereotypical message the media has laid out guild lines of what is acceptable characteristics for each gender type, and if you do have one of these traits than you are looked down upon, and often segregated from the rest of society.

The main idea here is that our world is filled with different types of media, therefore it is impossible to escape the message they are sending out and making them your own feels and beliefs. But there are also people who argue on behalf of the media by saying that the media is simply entertainment and fantasy, and anything that is viewed should looked from that point of view. Another objective point of view is that the media is simply a window to the real world, and just present things in a way that they are seen in our society. If media were simply a source of entertainment or a window to the real world, way is there so many example that show the negative effects of the media on our people. For example the media and the media alone is responsible for many cases of anorexia, or bulimia because the message people are receiving from the media is that there own bodies are not good enough, and they should look a certain way in order to be part of society. With our changing society that is heading in the direction of gender equality, it is evident that the media plays a major role in slowing the process down, because the message they send out is homogenous and puts stereotypes on each gender role. This is caused by the fact that media is run by only a few large corporations which are primarily run by males, therefore the message they send out are the ones that these big corporation want us to see in order to benefit them, not society.

In order to correct this problem of homogeneous saturation of the same stereotypical message, the large media corporations would have to be split into a large number of smaller companies. By doing this it would create a more diverse message being sent out to the public, and subject people to more than just a small amount of people’s opinions on society should be like. This diverse message would give people more freedom of choice to what they want to wear, how they act, or what type of job they want to occupy. They could do this without having to worry about people not accepting them for who they are, because the media says that is not the way they are suppose to be. This would allow our society to grow in a more positive direction, one that is for gender equality instead of against it.

In our modern society the values and beliefs that people have for themselves and each other, come from the homogeneous message that the media gives to society. In all forms of media such as television, movies, magazines, music etc, it is evident that they create and maintain gender stereotypes such as looking certain way, what role in society a gender should occupy, and even which characteristics a gender should have to be considered normal. It is these stereotypes maintained by media that cause society to be saturated with the same idea of how treat people that do not fall into the social norms and it takes away peoples freedom of choice to be whatever they want to be. The media has the power to shape society the way they see fit for them, it is because of these concentrated male operated corporations that has our society is based on male power. If the large corporations were to break into large number small companies, it would create diversity on the type of media that society is subjected too.

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